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General Vincent Axamitowski (1760-1828)

A distinguished Polish Artillery officer who entered the French service in 1800. Given command of the artillery of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807, he later served on Murat's personal staff and commanded a Cavalry brigade (1813).
He finished his service as the senior gunner of the new kingdom of Poland in 1825.

General Sir Frederick Adam (1781-1858)

Commisioned in 1795, Adam later served in Egipt and Sicily and was present at Maida in 1806. After a spell as ADC to the Prince Regent, he fought in eastern Spain and was twice wounded. Promoted to major general in 1814, he commanded a brigade at Waterloo and helped in the repulse of the Middle Guard.

Henry, 3rd Earl Bathurst (1762-1834)

A prominent and able English politician who served in Pitt's second ministry, he was Master of the Mint in 1804.
Later, after a brief period at the Foreign Office, he became President of the Board of Trade under the Duke of Portland. During the ministry of Lord Liverpool, Bathurst became Secretary for War and the Colonies, and in this post he did much to support Wellington's protracted war in the Peninsula. In later years he became Lord President of the Council in Wellington's administration (1828-30), but took no active part in politics after Great Reform Bill.

Colonel Henry Cadogan (1780-1813)

Commissioned into the 18th Foot in 1797, two years later he exchanged into the Coldstream Guards, the first of several transfer. After service in Scotland, the Channel Isles, and Curacao, he joined the 71st Highlanders. Serving as aide-de-camp to Wellesley in 1809, he fought at Oporto, negotiated with Cuesta, the Spanish commander, and was present at Talavera. In 1810 he took command of the 71st on their arrival in the Peninsula, and distinguished himself at Fuentes de Onoro next year. He was given command of the brigade and died at the battle of Vittoria leading his men to storm the Puebla Heights.

Dr. Nicolas Rene Dufriche Desgenettes (1762-1837)

Trained at Montpellier, this celebrated French surgeon served the Armies of Italy and the Orient. At Jaffa he courageously innoculated himself with the pus from plague victims, and boldly opposed Bonaparte's order for the mercy killing of the plague patients during the retread from Acre. In later years he was made Inspector General of the medical services, and served in both the Russian and the Waterloo campaign - being taken prisoner in the former but released on the Tsar's order. Until 1822 he was professor of the medical faculty at Paris, and was senior medical practitioner at Les Invalides. He was a distinguished member of the Academy of Sciences, and Napoleon greatly esteemed him regarding him as second only to the great Larrey.

Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon-Conde, duc d'Enghien (1772-1804)

The son of very ancient and prestigious French family with royal connections, he accompanied his parents into exile and joined the emigre Army of Conde. When this was disbanded in 1801, he retired to Ettenheim in Baden, and there secretly married Princess Charlotte de Rohan-Rochefort. Royalist plots induced Napoleon to order the Prince's arrest on neutral territory, and this illegal act was perpetrated on 15 March 1804. Enghien was hauled before a military court at the Chateau de Vincennes, tried on charges of treason without benefit of a defense counsel, and despite the pleas of Josephine, shot. As Fouche allegedly remarked, .... it was more than a crime - it was a mistake." This act shocked Europe and was a factor in the formation of the Third Coalition against France.

William Charles Frederick, Prince of the Netherlands (1797-1881)

The younger son of King William I, he was born in Berlin. He fought the Campaign of 1813 with the Allies and was present at Waterloo. In 1830 he failed to suppress serious rioting in Brussels, and retired from public life. he died at the Hague.

Colonel Sir Augustus Simon Frazer (1776-1835)

The son of a military engineer, he entered the Royal Artillery in 1793. Under Dickson he commanded the guns in the abysmal attack on Buenos Aires in 1807, and thereafter was appointed to command the Horse Artillery as a member of Wellington's staff during the years 1813 to 1815, including at Waterloo.
Knighted for his services in 1814, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. Only in 1825, however, did he receive his colonelcy, and he ended his career as Director of the Royal laboratory, Woolwich (1828).

General Johann, Count of Frimont (1759-1831)

An Austrian soldier who commanded the V corps in 1813 and 1814, the next year he invated Savoy, Sicily, and Provence and estabilished himself at Dijon until 1818. The Holy Alliance sent him to repress the Neapolitan liberals (1821), and he restored Ferdinand I to the throne. As Governor of Lombardy, he similarly repressed revolts in Parma, Modena, and Ferrara. He was made President of the Austrian Hofkriegsrath, or War Counsil, (1831) but died that same year in Vienna.

Lieutenant Colonel Sir Alexander Gordon (1786-1815)

After serving as aide-de-camp to his uncle, Sir David Baird, at the Cape of Good Hope (1806), he fought at Copenhagen the next year and thereafter shared in events in Portugal and Spain until 1809. As a member of the abortive expedition to Buenos Aires he negotiated terms on behalf of General Beresford. In 1813 he was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
He was Wellington's trusted aide both in Spain and during the Hundred Days but mortally wounded at Waterloo, and died in Wellington's headquarters in the room next to where the Duke was penning his famous dispatch.

General Andre Ivanovitch. Prince Gortchakov (1768-1855).

Present at Friedland (1807), after distinguished service in the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814 he was made General of Infantry in the Tsar's armies in 1819. he retired nine years later.

General Pietre Dmitrievich Gortchakov (1789-1868)

After taking a prominent part in the campaigns of Russia and Germany (1812-1813) he commanded a division against Turkey in 1829. He was responsible for annexing much of the Amur region, and from 1839-51 was Governor of Eastern Siberia.

Major General Andrew Hay (1762-1814)

In 1798 he raised the Banffshire Fencibles. He fought at Corunna in command of the 3rd battalion of the 1st Royals, and later in 1809 commanded a brigade at Walcheren. He later returned to the Peninsula under Wellington and was promoted to major general in 1811. He died from wounds received during fighting outside Bayonne in 1814.

Andreas Hofer (1767-1810)

An innkeeper in the town of St.Leonard in the Tyrolean region, in 1809 he placed himself at the head of local patriots and led a revolt among the Alps against the inclusion of the area within the French puppet-kingdom of Bavaria. His efforts required large-scale French counter-measures, but in January 1810 Lefebvre's men captured him after a lengthy pursuit in the montains following a tip-off.
Hofer was tried for his life, condemned to death, and executed at Mantua. The Viennese goverment which had originally encouraged his revolt and then abandoned him, ennobled his family nine years later.

Ibrahim Bey, Emir of Egypt (1735-1817)

Born in (modern) Czechoslovakia, he was sold as a slave to the head Mameluke in Egypt, Abu-Dahab, who gave him his freedom and later made him governor of Cairo. On Abu-Dahab's death he became joint Emir-Mameluke and ruler of Egypt with Murad Bey. His period of power came to an end with Bonaparte's expedition to Egipt in 1798, but he fought with great skill at the Pyramids and Heliopolis. After the French evacuation he proved incapable of reasserting his rule in Cairo. In 1811 he successfully avoided Mehemet Ali's massacre of the Mameluke rulers, and died in obscurity six years later.

John VI (1767-1826)

Prince Regent and later King of Portugal. Son of Peter III of Portugal, he become regent in 1792 after a bitter row with his mother. He took the title of Prince of the Algarve and married the daughter of Charles IV of Spain. His attitude toward both the Revolution and the Empire was one of hostility, and in 1807 Junot invaded Portugal and the Regent and his goverment were forced to flee to Brasil. In 1816, on the death of his mother, he took the title of John VI but only returned to Europe in 1821. He faced much trouble from his sons Miguel and Pedro, and after exiling the former he ruled alone, introducting a form of constitutional monarchy.

General Sir James Kempt (1764-1854)

In 1799 he served as Abercromby's aide-de-camp in Holland, and followed him to the Mediterranean and Egypt in 1800-1801. In 1806 he commanded the light brigade under Stuart at Maida, and later commanded a brigade under Picton in the Peninsula. He was severely wounded in the storm of Badajoz in 1812 but recovered to command a brigade in the Light Division through 1813 and 1814. At Waterloo he assumed command of the 3rd Division on Picton's death. From 1820-28 he served as Governor of Nova Scotia, and as Governor General of Canada for the next two years. Appointed a Privy Councillor in 1830, he become Master General of the Ordnance from 1834-38, and was promoted to full general in 1841.

General Sir John Lambert (1772-1847)

After becoming an ensign in the 1st Guards in 1791 he was promoted to captain two years later, and became a lieutenant colonel in 1801. In 1808 he accompanied Wellesley to Portugal, and then Moore to Spain, and next year took part in the Walcheren expedition. Appointed a brevet colonel in 1811, he spent the years 1811 to 1814 in the Peninsula, being promoted to major general in1813. Two years later he served at New Orleans under the ill-fated general Pakenham but returned to England with dispatches in time to fight at Waterloo, where he commanded one of the brigades of British Guards with distinction. He had been knighted in 1815. From Waterloo onward, General Lambert and his family became closely associated with Captain Harry Smith of the 95th Rifles and his wife Juanita. In 1825 he became a lieutenant general, and a full general in 1841.

Lieutenant General Sir James Leight (1763-1816)

After being educated at Aberdeen and Lille, he became an ensign and served at Toulon under Lord Hood in 1793.
Next year he was promoted to colonel, and ten years later to brigadier general. He fought at Corunna under Sir John Moore (1809), and from 1810-12 served as a divisional commander in the Peninsula under Wellington. He was knighted in 1813 and promoted to lieutenant general. Next year he was made Commander in Chief of British forces in the West Indies and Governor of the Leeward Isles. He died at Barbados.

General Sir William Lumpley (1769-1850)

Educated at Eton, he entered the army in 1787 and rose to be a lieutenant colonel by 1795. Three years later he served in Ireland during the rebellion, and in 1801 saw service under Abercromby in Egipt. In 1805 he was promoted to major general and next year served in the reconquest of the Cape of Good Hope and then in South America. From 1810-1814 he served in the Peninsula, rising to the rank of lieutenant general. From 1819-25 he served as governor and Commander in Chief in Bermuda, and in 1837 he was appointed full general.

Major General John Gaspard Le Marchant (1766-1812)

First commissioned in 1781, he became a friend of George III and was well thought of by that monarch. After service in the ill-fated Flanders campaign of 1793-94 under the Duke of York, he was promoted to major in 1795. He devised a new exercise with the sword for cavalry, designed and improved pattern of weapon, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1797. He next became a strong proponent of the need for formal military training for young officers of infantry and cavalry, and held responsible posts in the institutions that preceded the opening of the Royal Military College Sandhurst in 1812, of which he was the first Governor. However that same year saw him called to the Peninsula to take up command, as a major general, of part of Wellington's cavalry, and at the battle of Salamanca he was killed in action after breaking a French square.

Maximilian-Josef, Elector, later King of Bavaria (1756-1825)

The son of a French general, he became a marechal de camp (1778) before the Revolution, but he retired to Mannerheim. In 1795 he became Elector of Bavaria and carried out many reforms. In 1801 he ceded certain territories west of the Rhine to France, and joined the League of the Rhine four years later. He allied himself to the Empire and his troops served in the Austerlitz campaign. After the Peace of Pressburg he assumed the title of King, and remained loyal to Napoleon until after Leipzig, in late 1813 he signed the Treaty of Ried with the Allies. In 1817 he gave his country a constitution.

Lieutenant General Sir Charles James Napier (1782-1853)

First commisioned in 1794, he was promoted to major in 1805 and served under Moore at Corunna, where he was wounded and made prisoner. Exchanged the next year, he was posted to the Peninsula and fought at the Coa and Bussaco. Promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1811, two year later he served against the United States. In 1822 he was in Greece during part of its independence struggle, but he declined the command of rebels against the Turks. In 1837 he was made major general and in 1841 transfered to India, where he became famous as the conqueror of Sind in 1843, and thereafter as its gifted administrator. Promoted to lieutenant general in 1846, he retired from Sind the next year. Appointed to command in the Second Sikh War of 1849, he arrived back in India to find the war already over. Next year he resigned after a legal row arising from his suppressing a mutiny in the 66th Foot.

General Sir George Thomas Napier (1784-1855)

Brother of Sir Charles. He entered the army in 1800, becoming a captain four years later. He served under Moore in Sicily, Sweden and Spain.
Made a major in 1811, he rose to become a major general 26 years later - the year he become Governor of the Cape of Good Hope. Knighted in 1838, he was promoted to lieutenant general in 1846 and to full general eight years later.

General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier (1785-1860)

The younger brother of Charles and George, he joined the army in 1808, and in 1810 distinguished himself at the Coa.
In 1819 he retired on half pay as a lieutenant colonel and began to work on his great history of the Peninsular War, which was published between 1828 and 1840. Promoted to major general in 1841, be became lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1842-1847). He conducted a long dispute with Beresford over his portrayal of Albuera, and also wrote several more books on his brother Charles achievement in Sind.

William Frederick, Prince of Orange later King of the Low Countries (1772-1843)

In 1806 he lost the principality of Nassau after refusing to join the Confederetion of the Rhine, but was awarded the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and Limburg in compensation. In 1813 he became Sovereign Prince of the Low Countries, and two years later became king with the title of William I.

William, Prince of Orange, later William II, King of Holland (1792-1849)

The eldest son of William Frederick, in 1815 he was given command of a corps in Wellington's army and fought at Quatre Bras and Waterloo, where he was wounded. In 1816 he married Anna, a Russian princess, and succeed his father as king of Holland in 1840.

Field Marshal Peter Carl, Baron Ott (1738-1809)

This experienced Habsburg commander was born at Gran in 1738 and had a distinguished career in the Austrian service.
He held high command against the Turks in 1789, fought the French in the Low Countries (1793-94), and served in North Italy in 1796. The following years he was appointed field-marshal-lieutenant. In 1799 he served with distinction under Suvorov, fighting at Novi and besieging Ancona. The next year, under Melas direction, he besieged Massena in Genoa and received his surrender. He was worsted by Lannes at Montebello and commanded the left wing under Melas at Marengo on 14 June 1800, withdrawing his men in good order into Alessandria at the end of the battle. This proved to be his last active command.

Jean-Philippe Palm (1766-1806)

The owner of bookshop in Nuremberg, Palm marketed a pamphlet accusing Napoleon of being a tyrant.
He was arrested, tried by court-martial, and executed immediately after sentence at Braunau-on-the-Inn.

Major General Sir William Ponsonby (1772-1815)

He obtained command of the 5-th Dragoon Guards in 1803 and served in Spain (1811-1814), commanding a brigade of cavalry at Vitoria. He was knighted in 1815, shortly before the Hundred Days. At Waterloo he led the charge of the Union Brigade which shattered d'Erlon's I Corps, but pressed too far, and after attacking the main French battery he was killed by Jacquinot's lancers as he tried to regain Wellington's lines with his disordered horsemen.

General Juan Diaz Porlier, Marquis of Matoarosa (1783-1815)

After serving at Trafalgar, he fought against Napoleon in 1808 and became a famous leader of the Spanish guerrillas operating in the Biscayan and Asturian regions. Porlier was the nephew of General La Romana and from this he derived his nickname of El Marquesito. He fought at Gamonal, and in 1810 temporarily captured Santander in an amphibious operation with the aid of Commodore Popham and his squadron, an exploit that was twice repeated over the next two years; the third attempt in 1812 was in fact repulsed. Later he became disillusioned with Ferdinand VII rebelled against his rule, and was eventually captured and hanged (1815) at Corunna.

Field Marshal Josef Wenceslas Count Radetsky (1766-1858)

Born in Bohemia, Radetsky earned a reputation as a fighting soldier in campaigns against the French, whom he fought in the Low Countries , on the Rhine, and in Italy. After Aspern-Essling in 1809 he was promoted to field-marshal-lieutenant and thereafter fought in all the campaigns against Napoleon from August 1813 to 1815.
In 1831 he became Commander in Chief in Italy and was promoted to full field marshal. In 1848, the "year of Revolutions" he was driven out of Milan but regained the city and won a number of battles including Novara. Then as Governor general of Lombardy-Venetia, he repressed Italian nationalist movements with some severity, finally retiring in 1857.

General Dmitri Osten, Count Sacken (1790-1881)

The son of a Russian general who fought with distinction at Eylau (1807), in the Campaign of Russia (1812) and during the Campaign of France (1814), the young soldier shared in most of his father's military experiences. In later years he fought in the Caucasus, against Persia (1826-27), against Turkey (1828-29), and also served in Poland (1831), Hungary (1849), and in the Crimean War (1854-56).

Frederick Augustus I, Elector and King of Saxony (1763-1827)

This German prince early adopted a friendly relationship with Napoleon, and in 1806 was raised to the dignity of crown. From 1807-13 he was also the personal ruler of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. His alliance with France led to the congres of Vienna reallocating almost half of his inherited lands to other German princes.

Lieutenant General Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842)

During service with the Royal Artillery in Flanders (1793) he was wounded at Dunkirk. An inventor of some note, he developed several improvements taken up by the artillery, most especially his shell-a hollow sphere packed with musketballs and explosive which was first accepted in 1803. Used for the first time at Surinam in the East Indies (1804), Wellington spoke highly of its value after Bussaco (1810), and General Sir George Wood enthused over its properties after Waterloo. From 1804 Shrapnel was senior Assistant Inspector of the Artillery and had attained the rank of major general by the time of his retirement in 1825. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1837 and promised a baronetcy by William IV, but in fact never received this honor. His shell proved particularly effective against formed bodies of troops, whether infantry or cavalry.

General Nicolas Grigorievitch, Prince Repnine-Volkonski (1778-1845)

Russian soldier of noble lineage, he commanded the Russian Chevalier Guard at Austerlitz, where he was taken prisoner by General Rapp. He was present at the Congress of Vienna (1815) and ended his career as Governor of Lesser Russia.


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General Peter Bagration (1765-1812)

This notable Russian commander came from a noble Georgian family, entering the army in 1782. Service in the Caucasus and Poland earned him the favor of Suvorov, whom he accompanied on his Italian and Swiss campaigns (1799), during which he captured Brescia. In 1805 he commanded against Murat at Hollanbrunn, accepting odds of five to one to enable the main Allied army of Kutusov to make good its retread. He was present at battles of Austerlitz, Eylau, Heilsberg and Friendland, where he particulary distinguished himself. Succesful campaigns against the Swedes and Turks followed in 1808 and 1809, and in 1812 Bagration was appointed to command the Second Army of the West. He was defeated at Moghilev in July, but evaded French attempts to trap his army and eventually joined Barclay de Tolly at Smolensk. Kutusov gave him command of the Russian left wing at battle of Borodino, and he was wounded in battle. Just over two weeks later he succumbed to an infection and was greatly mourned by the Russian army and people.

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"Najjasniejszy Panie, Trzeci Korpus bedzie dla Ciebie zawsze tym, czym Legia Dziesiata dla Cezara".
Marszalek - Ludwik Davout


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General Joahim Blake (1759-1827)

Of Irish descent, Blake was born at Malaga. In 1808 he was given command of the Army of Galicia as captain general of that province, but was defeated by Bessieres at Medina del Rio Seco on 14 July 1808. He was later defeated at Pan Corbo and Espinosa by Lefebvre and Victor respectively and again at Murviedro. Despite these setback he was no mean commander, and fought with small regular forces and guerrillas until 1812, when he was taken prisoner. In later years he earned a reputation as a political liberal, particulary from 1820. Brave and approachable, and strict for a Spanish commander, he had a tendency toward bad luck.

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"Najjasniejszy Panie, Trzeci Korpus bedzie dla Ciebie zawsze tym, czym Legia Dziesiata dla Cezara".
Marszalek - Ludwik Davout


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Louis Antoine Fauvelet Bourienne (1769-1834)

A schoolmate of Napoleon's at Brienne, Bourrienne followed him to Italy and in 1797 became his private secretary, a post he held until 1804 when he was sacked for theft and speculation. He was next sent to Hamburg as charge d'affaires, but was again removed from his post for the scale of his exactions and profiteering from evasions of the Continental System. He later joined the Bourbons, who made him a Minister of State. His three-volume Memoires are of dubious accuracy but still throw much light on the years of his close association with Napoleon.

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"Najjasniejszy Panie, Trzeci Korpus bedzie dla Ciebie zawsze tym, czym Legia Dziesiata dla Cezara".
Marszalek - Ludwik Davout


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Field Marshal Sir Henry Viscount Hardinge (1785-1856)
Załącznik:
WP_Henry_Hardinge_1_Viscount_Hardinge.jpg

As deputy assistant quartermaster general to General Spencer he fought under Wellesley at Rolica and Vimiero (1808), and later served with Moore in the Corunna campaign, being at the general's side during his last moments. He fought at Albuera (1811) and was wounded at Vitoria two years later. He was sent to observe Napoleon's movements during the earlier part of Hundred Days and was British liaison officer, in the rank of colonel, attached to Blucher's headquarters, and as such fought at Ligny. He remained attached to Prusian staff in France until 1818. In 1820 he began a long political career, holding several minor posts and becoming a lieutenant general in 1841 and governor general of India (1844-47). He was promoted to full general in 1854 and appointed field marshal the next year.


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"Najjasniejszy Panie, Trzeci Korpus bedzie dla Ciebie zawsze tym, czym Legia Dziesiata dla Cezara".
Marszalek - Ludwik Davout


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